QUILOMBO DOS PALMARES
Quilombo dos palmares
A quilombo established kingdom
At the beginning of XVII Century, black slaves working on sugar cane plantations in the captaincy of Pernambuco, in the Northeast of Brazil, revolted and fled into the mountains. Then they melt Os Palmares In Angola Angola Janga or Nova, around the mountain Barriga, an autonomous territory of freed slaves also lived as Indians, mulattos and many whites. These were deserters or landless.
Gradually, this movement causes a multitude of slave rebellions in neighboring regions. More and more of them are released and join the community of Palmares. It becomes a sort of promised land for slaves and continues to expand, with up to 30,000 members. Freed slaves to reproduce a way of life in community, similar to that practiced by their ancestors on the African land. Everyone plays their part and works for the community. There are no hierarchical organization among members, only a few warlords serve as guides and strategists for defense actions.
Multiple cropping is practiced, varied cereals inspired by African traditions cassava, black beans, corn ... almost non-existent among the settlers. Indeed, the Portuguese were focusing on growing profitable products as easily exported to Europe, producing almost exclusively cane sugar. This variety of productions remain rich in the region.
The Portuguese repression
Violent attacks of the Portuguese army attempting to eradicate the Palmares, but in vain. The insurgent guerrillas in the jungle have because of the experience of the soldiers of the Portuguese crown.
Around 1630, the Dutch, who are trying to take Brazil to the Portuguese, progressing from the coast in the north of the country. They try to turn destroy the quilombo, but they are violently repelled. In 1654, they were finally driven from the mainland by the Portuguese.
In 1678, Pedro de Almeida, governor of Pernambuco, which is more favorable to a tender quilombo members and their destruction offers a truce in one of Palmares warlords, Ganga Zumba, assuring him that the insurgents will forgiven and not executed. He agrees.
The head of war that remain the most famous, Zumbi Dos Palmares, urging that the Portuguese Offer is made to end the rebellion and refuses his people to surrender. It takes, in 1680, the head of the resistance against the Portuguese enemy. Fifteen years, the royal troops will be baffled by the force of the amazing Quilombo.
In 1694, supported by heavy artillery, Portuguese commanders Domingos Jorge Velho and Vieira de Mello led the final assault against the Cerca do Macaco, the main center of the autonomous territory. Zumbi managed to escape and take refuge in the Serra Dois Irmãos but eventually die in battle Nov. 20, 1695.
Palmares survivors fled to the captaincy of Paraiba, or melted into the forests of the region, creating new quilombos.